Volcano Research Paper
The 2014 steam explosion at Mount Ontake, Japan, killed 57 people without any magma reaching the surface. generation of geothermal energy accounts for nearly one-quarter of the global capacity (Bertani, 2015).
Many volcanoes in the United States have the potential for much larger eruptions, such as the 1912 eruption of Katmai, Alaska, the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century (Hildreth and Fierstein, 2012). In addition, volcanoes act as magmatic and hydrothermal distilleries that create ore deposits, including gold and copper ores.
For these reasons, the impacts of at least some types of volcanic eruptions should be easier to mitigate than other natural hazards.
Anticipating the largest volcanic eruptions is possible.
Volcanic eruptions evolve over very different temporal and spatial scales than most other natural hazards (Figure 1.3).
In particular, many eruptions are preceded by signs of unrest that can serve as warnings, and an eruption itself often persists for an extended period of time.
Most of Earth’s atmosphere, water, and crust were delivered by volcanoes, and volcanoes continue to recycle earth materials. More than a dozen are usually erupting at any time somewhere on Earth, and close to 100 erupt in any year (Loughlin et al., 2015).
We also know the locations of many volcanoes and, hence, where most eruptions will occur.
Understanding how volcanoes form, how they erupt, and their consequences requires an understanding of the processes that cause rocks to melt and change composition, how magma is stored in the crust and then rises to the surface, and the interaction of magma with its surroundings. Globally, volcanic eruptions caused about 80,000 deaths during the 20th century (Sigurdsson et al., 2015).
Our understanding of how volcanoes work and their consequences is also shared with the millions of people who visit U. Even modest eruptions, such as the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland, have multibillion-dollar global impacts through disruption of air traffic.