Multicultural Counseling Research Papers
Counseling has typically assumed that there is a fixed state of mind that is obscured by cultural distortions and that relate behaviors across cultures to some universal definition of normative behavior described in textbooks.A contrasting anthropological perspective assumes that cultural differences are clues to divergent attitudes, values, or perspectives that differentiate one culture from another based on a culture-specific viewpoint.The cultural grid shows an ‘‘inside-the-person’’ or intrapersonal cultural framework for demonstrating how cultural and personal factors interact.Through the cultural grid, each individual behavior can be linked to the culturally learned expectation on which that behavior is based, and each expectation can be linked to the culture teachers from whom those expectations were learned.Making the consumer’s cultural context central rather than marginal when providing psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic services strengthens those traditional counseling perspectives.However, because counseling first developed as a field in a Euro-American cultural context, counseling typically reflects Euro-American assumptions in textbooks, theories, tests, ethical guidelines, methods, and other services.Counseling is a product of Western cultures whose values have continued to dominate the counseling profession through the imposition of cultural assumptions as counseling services have spread to other cultures, demonstrating the generic centrality of culture to achieve competence in the counseling process.
Fourth, solutions are sought in technique-oriented strategies and quick or simple remedies.
The cultural grid provides a systematic framework for the counselor to interpret each client behavior in the context where that behavior was learned and is displayed.
The cultural grid demonstrates that there are many different culture teachers present in the counseling interview, with some belonging to the counselor and some belonging to the client.
In 1962, Wrenn first introduced the concept of cultural encapsulation.
This perspective assumes five basic identifying features.