Example Of A Survey Questionnaire In A Research Paper
Surveyors may conduct pilot tests or focus groups in the early stages of questionnaire development in order to better understand how people think about an issue or comprehend a question.
Pretesting a survey is an essential step in the questionnaire design process to evaluate how people respond to the overall questionnaire and specific questions.
For example, in a poll conducted after the presidential election in 2008, people responded very differently to two versions of this question: “What one issue mattered most to you in deciding how you voted for president? In the closed-ended version, respondents were provided five options (and could volunteer an option not on the list).
When explicitly offered the economy as a response, more than half of respondents (58%) chose this answer; only 35% of those who responded to the open-ended version volunteered the economy.
One example of the impact of how categories are defined can be found in a Pew Research poll conducted in January 2002: When half of the sample was asked whether it was “more important for President Bush to focus on domestic policy or foreign policy,” 52% chose domestic policy while only 34% said foreign policy.
When the category “foreign policy” was narrowed to a specific aspect – “the war on terrorism” – far more people chose it; only 33% chose domestic policy while 52% chose the war on terrorism.
Creating good measures involves both writing good questions and organizing them to form the questionnaire.
Questionnaire design is a multistage process that requires attention to many details at once.
All of the other issues were chosen at least slightly more often when explicitly offered in the closed-ended version than in the open-ended version.
Pew Research Center launched its own random sample panel survey in 2014; for more, see the section on the American Trends Panel.
Many of the questions in Pew Research surveys have been asked in prior polls.
In this way, the questions may better reflect what the public is thinking or how they view a particular issue.
When asking closed-ended questions, the choice of options provided, how each option is described, the number of response options offered and the order in which options are read can all influence how people respond.
Many surveyors want to track changes over time in people’s attitudes, opinions and behaviors.