Conformity Rebellion Essay Sylvia Plath Essay On Imagery
It is easy to be indifferent to the plight of innocent victims. We have been conditioned to believe that scientists are responsible, benevolent people of high integrity.
Somebody suggested that, before the president could issue orders to use nuclear weapons, he should first have to kill the man holding the box - so that s/he is aware of the reality of death. When an "assistant" took over in the Milgram experiments, compliance dropped to 20%. We seek to atone by complying with another person's wishes.
You will continue to hold beliefs similar to the SO as long as he remains important to you, he still holds the same beliefs, and those beliefs are not challenged by counter-opinions that are more convincing. he says A, the group says B, and the right answer is C) conformity drops sharply.
If the SOs beliefs change or he becomes less important to you, your beliefs can change. A fellow dissenter exerts a powerful freeing effect from the influence of the majority. There are different theories about the effect of status on conformity. Homans takes the view that both high and low status individuals conform less than those intermediate in status.
On the level of compliance, many experimenters see little difference between animals and humans, because all organisms respond to rewards and punishments. Rather, we adopt a particular behavior because it puts us in a satisfying relationship to the person or persons with whom we are identifying. Internalization is motivated by a desire to be right. Compliance is the least enduring and has the least effect on the individual, because people comply merely to gain reward or to avoid punishment. Continuous reward or punishment is not necessary for identification.
We do come to believe in the opinions and values we adopt, though not very strongly. If the person who provides the influence is perceived to be trustworthy and of good judgment, we accept the belief he or she advocates and we integrate it into our belief system. Rewards and punishments are very important means to get people to learn and to perform specific activities but are limited as techniques of social influence because they must be ever present to be effective - unless the individual discovers some additional reason for continuing the behavior. All that is needed is the individual's desire to be like that person. Any puncturing of unanimity makes it easier to defy the group (even if the other defier is an idiot! In fact, even if one other person gives an incorrect response that is different from the error the others are making (i.e.
When studies were done in Bridgeport, Connecticut rather than at Yale, only 48% delivered the maximum shock. However, studies have tended to look at similar people in strong situations. The more difficult the task or the more ambiguous the stimulus, the greater the conformity. Guilty people seek out ways to lessen their guilt by voluntarily engaging in a good deed.
It seems that most were quite willing to participate in this situation as long as they were not the ones who inflicted the pain.
Galileo, Lincoln, Freud all advanced minority positions and eventually induced the majority to adopt their beliefs.
Deviant behavior is a potential threat to the group's effectiveness.
How, then, can groups deal with non-conforming behavior? If this doesn't work, the group can apply more pressure, including threats of direct punishment.
Whether the deviant will be sanctioned, and how severely, depends on several things. will affect the severity of the punishment, but the relationship is not simple and straightforward.
If either identification or internalization had been involved, the conforming behavior would have persisted in private (NOTE: Subjects gave different answers when responses were not public.) 6. We tend to make the fundamental attribution error when looking at such things - but Milgram said "The most fundamental lesson of our study is that ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process." 4. Some research confirms this, but other research does not.