Chemosynthesis Of Sulfur Southeast Asia Essay
The Alpena fountain was dominated by populations closely related to Thiothrix lacustris and an SM1 euryarchaeon known to live symbiotically with Thiothrix spp.
The SM1 genomic bin contained evidence of H and nitrate as electron acceptors. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00484 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Konkol, N.
Mats at both sites also contained Deltaproteobacteria with genes for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (sat, apr, and dsr) and hydrogen oxidation (Ni-Fe hydrogenases).
Overall, the microbial mats at the two sites held low-diversity microbial communities, displayed evidence of coupled sulfur cycling, and did not differ largely in their metabolic potentials, despite the environmental differences. Assessment of the stoichiometry and efficiency of CO2 fixation coupled to reduced sulfur oxidation.
In communities beneath the cyanobacterial mats chemosynthetic primary production is fueled by redox reactions of an active sulfur cycle driven by sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Nold et al., 2010; Voorhies et al., 2012).
The Isolated Sinkhole sits in the aphotic zone at a water depth of 93 m and covers an area of approximately 55 m × 40 m, as described in detail in Biddanda et al. Groundwater seeps into the sinkhole and is characterized by high chlorine, sulfate, phosphorus, particulate organic matter, and conductivity.
Little is known about large sulfur bacteria (LSB) that inhabit sulfidic groundwater seeps in large lakes. Oxidation of molecular hydrogen by a chemolithoautotrophic Beggiatoa strain.
De novo assembly and binning of metagenomic data from these two communities yielded near complete genomes and revealed representatives of two families of LSB. on an aquatic macrophyte in a hydrothermal vent flume in Sedge Bay, Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming.
LSB thrive in marine seeps (Larkin et al., 1994; Joye et al., 2004; Jones et al., 2015), mud volcanoes (Girnth et al., 2011), deep-sea hydrothermal systems (Mc Kay et al., 2012), organic-rich sediments, terrestrial hydrothermal vents (Konkol et al., 2010) and sulfide springs (Caldwell et al., 1975; Nelson and Castenholz, 1981; Larkin et al., 1994; Teske, 2006; Chaudhary et al., 2009), sulfidic caves (Engel et al., 2001; Macalady et al., 2006) and phototrophic mats (Hinck et al., 2011). have been studied in some large lakes (Zemskaya et al., 2009), little is known about chemosynthetic communities or LSB in large freshwater lakes such as the Laurentian Great Lakes (Biddanda et al., 2006). doi: 10.1016/b978-1-4832-3211-9.50009-7 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kearse, M., Moir, R., Wilson, A., Stones-Havas, S., Cheung, M., Sturrock, S., et al. Geneious Basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts199 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kinsman-Costello, L.
In submerged sinkholes of Lake Huron, venting of low-oxygen, saline, sulfate-rich, sulfidic groundwater supports chemosynthetic microbial communities (Biddanda et al., 2006).
A sample was collected from the whole white mat, which was directly attached to the fountain substrate, in the upper basin of the Alpena library fountain site (45 3.747′N, 83 25.872′W) on July 24th, 2012, and preserved in RNAlater (Ambion) as instructed by the manufacturer.
Sulfide concentrations were determined by the methylene blue method (Cline, 1969) using Procedure 1 described by Reese et al. Dissolved oxygen was measured by a YSI Pro Dissolved Oxygen probe (Digital Professional Series).